Sexualized society:”Culprit” women
The androcratic world was formed as a result of several historical processes. These historical processes served for dominating of men denying the women any authority in the society. In this system, enhancing the man socially and physically opened the flood-gates for psychological, social and biological exploitation of women, with the result that the latter were deprived of social development. The development of the patriarchal religions and philosophy was prominent in regulating of this mentality. So, the male Gods replaced the female ones. The status of women began to decline because of using the philosophical views and religious rules by the powers as a law of their own governments. The patriarchal powers accusing the women not obeying these rules of protesting against the divine power condemned them to the execution. Now we can acknowledge the fact of sexualized unfair governments resting upon the traditions and customs and administrated by the patriarchal rules rather than the divine power violation women’s rights.
The patriarchal system: the first signs of the social and biological exploitations
The men have grasped all social and power structures in consequence of the patriarchal historical processes and all events in the society were emerged according to the male character. So, the males became founders of the history and the females – the biological agent and market. Despite the female law and equality of rights of men and women have been restored in some states, there are many other states dominated by the primitive thought and mentality. As in many places of the world, in the Islam countries the women are under load of patriarchal systems and mentality. The researches made within different years substantiate that the rights of women are violating considerably in the Islam countries. The legal and social exploitation of women is observed more in the states administrated based on Shari’ah rules and in the sexualized societies.
Violation of women rights in the Islamic states depends on two factors. One of them is the androcentric society resting upon the religious, historical and traditions and the second is related to the Shari’ah law theory. The combination of these two factors favoured heavy restrictions and outraged status for the women. But these approaches and thoughts vary from country to country. In this article we will refer to the matter of Iran.
Iran: the sexual and “divine” power
The situation and life mode of women residing in Iran have been formed due to the combination of aforementioned two factors throughout the history (especially after the Islamic Revolution). The women are provided with paltry rights stipulated by the laws of Iran based on the patriarchal Shari’ah regime arisen after the Islam Revolution and implemented by the new regime in power. They are exposed to the discrimination not only from the social, but also the legal standpoint. Presently the women are underwent the violence in home and social life. In his writings Ayatollah Murteza Muteherri has determined new roles and duties for the Iranian women touching upon plenty rights provided for them by the Islamic Shari’ah in comparison with the West; but we know that they are exposed to the discrimination and unfairness by the “divine” power in the social thought as a result of social processes conducted in the guise of Islamization.
All oppositional groups, as well as the liberals and the leftists emerged after the Islamic revolution in the country, Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters have established a state resting upon the traditional Islamic rules. So, the women were transformed into the stratum exposed to all restrictions, whose rights are exploited in authoritarian regime.
First days of new exploiting: female rights dragging behind black veils
The women considered as protectors of the Islamic ethics are exposed to many law violations by the state in the social life. Ayatollah Khomeini had been appeared with a declaration in 3 weeks after the revolution in connection with the obligatory veil. The government issued an order on the women to put on black veil. The women being against the new mode of wearing have to be punished severely. The women objecting to the hijab and black veil in many big cities were exposed to encroachment, and attacks by knife and fire-arm by the men supporting Hezbollah. Even some women were executed by shooting slandered as prostitutes. So, beginning from 1980s all women employed by the state authorities were obliged to wear black veil. The black veil has been transformed into the symbol of the Islamic government and the sign of independence for the Muslim umma.
The regime of tesbeh (rosary): bans building the totalitarian columns
The pressures made by a regime built newly in Iran towards the women are not exhausted. The women imposed a ban upon the sportive activity can engage only in some kinds of sport determined by the government. The women were driven away from the policy and the state building activity. The doors of the press and entertainment centres are closed to the face of women. Thousands of female teachers, state officials and other women employed on the other specialization were forcedly dismissed from the posts. According to the statistics about 40 thousand female teaches were dismissed of the work within 1980-1985s. In the media, schools and universities of Iran only the rights and duties were propagandized determined beforehand by the state. For example, the high school manuals taught the women to bring up children and cooking. The sexual discrimination in the society was deepened day by day. The social relations formed between men and women were imposed a ban. The Islamic regime presenrting all these restrictions to the people as the order of the religion and a divine obligation. All these restrictions and injustices are extending from 1979 up to present. The violence exposed by women in the society and family is deepening day by day.
Powerless laws: moral values in the nudes
The regime making up the Shiite and Persian traditions dictated to the people that orders and comments made by Khomeini were rested upon the divine foundation. Referring to the chapter 10 of the Iranian Constitution, the guidance counsel consisting of Ayatollahs has submitted the supreme religious leader in the country to the people as a representative of the God and Mehdi – the owner of the Times and provided him with a power to give orders relating to the personal life of citizens, state authorities, the President, armed forces, judicial system, media and all remained fields of the life. The Iranian Constitution contains many contradicting provisions concerning the women. So, the article 21 of the Constitution has determined some rights and functions for women based on the values of the ancient traditions and the sexualized society. Despite the article 20 of the Iranian Constitution touched upon equal rights enjoyed both by men and women, the article 4 says that all civil, penal financial, economic, administrative, cultural, military, political, and other laws and regulations must be based on Islamic criteria. It means that this article disproves the article 20. As, the Shari’ah rules have clearly drawn the discrimination among men and women. Within the last time, there have been opened women’s restaurants in some cities and taxies driven by women have been put to circulation. The fact of small number of women admitted to the universities than men, separate entrance doors in the universities for girls and boys, even preservation of boys and girls in the separate rooms in the kindergartens damage to the development of the society. Both the Islamic criminal law and the laws approved after the Islamic revolution in Iran has clearly recognized that in Iran the women have no right in comparison with men. The rights pertaining to the heritage, inheritance, divorce, marriage and so on were provided for men rather than women. Even inside the family the women have no rights to engage in any activity without permission of their father, brother and other male relatives. Even to have a passport, her father, brother or the husband of a woman have to issue a written permission certified in public notary office. These discriminations are reflected in the criminal law as well. During the last time, after the conservative forces have grasped the power, these laws became more severe. Now we can acknowledge that the women in the Iranian society are slaves.
The colonial South Azerbaijan: punishment for woman and Turkish identity
This situation exerts negative influence on the life of women residing in the South Azerbaijan. The fact that the South Azerbaijan became the colony of the Iranian government from economic and social standpoint makes heavy trails in the life of women rather than men. Because of the reaction policy applied by Iran in Azerbaijan, the resources allotted for the South Azerbaijan are used considerably by the men. The women of the South Azerbaijan are crumbled under the pressures because of her Turkish identity. The official statistics prove that the Azerbaijani women’s rights are violating more than other ethnic groups female representatives.
The End: … or the beginning for the end
To provide the Iranian women with normal rights, the patriarchal regime has to be changed radically. It will be possible only by the joint fight of women and the men. The change of the regime and establishment of the democratic state resting upon the equality of right… The majority of women’s rights defenders in Iran are investigating the women problems referring mainly to the Persian culture, the thought of the Persian nationalism and the Persian history. And their activity embraces mainly Tehran, the capital city. And the problems of women not pertaining to the Persian ethnos are beyond this research. One of the ways out from the patriarchal religious regime is that the social groups having different culture and all ethnic groups have to be taken into account. Without pluralism in any struggle, the victory over the fanaticism will not be possible. It will not be possible to gain a democratic result considering the matter only a unique point of view.
Elchin Hatami- Human Rights Activist